Black Vernacular English - African-American Vernacular English

  • Baratz, J., and R. Shuy, eds. Teaching Black Children to Read. CAL

  • Baugh, J. "A Reexamination of the Black English Copula." Locating Language in Time and Space. Ed. W. Labov. New York: Academic Press, 1980.

  • ---. Black Street Speech: Its History, Structure, and Survival. Austin: U of Texas Press, 1983.

  • Burling, R. English in Black and White. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, n.d.

  • Chambers, John W., Jr. Black English: Educational Equity and the Law. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma Publishers, 1983.

  • Grant, Steven A. "Language Policy in the United States." Profession 78. New York: Modern Language Association, n.d.

  • Dillard, J. L. Black English: Its History and Usage in the United States. New York: Random House, 1972.

  • Farrell, T.J. "Differentiating Writing from Talking." College Composition and Communication 29 (1978): 346-50.

  • Fasold, R., and R. Shuy, eds. Teaching Standard English in the Inner City. CAL

  • Fasold, R. "The Relation between Black and White Speech in the South." American Speech 56 (1971): 163-89.

  • Hewitt, R. White Talk, Black Talk. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1986.

  • Hoffman, Melvin. "Bidialectalism Is Not the Language of White Supremacy." The English Record 21 (April 1971): 95-102.

  • Labov, William. Language in the Inner City: Studies in the Black English Vernacular. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1972.

  • ---. "Stages in the Acquisition of Standard English." Social Dialects and Language Learning. Ed. Roger Shuy. Champaign, IL: NCTE, 1964.

  • McDavid, R., Jr. and L. Davis. "The Dialects of Negro Americans." Studies in Linguistics in Honor of George L. Trager. Ed. M. E. Smith. The Hague: Mouton, 1972.

  • O'Neil, Wayne. "The Politics of Bidialectalism." College English 33 (1972): 433-438.

  • Pixton, William. "A Contemporary Dilemma: The Question of Standard English." College Communication and Composition 5 (1974): 247-253.

  • Rickford, John R., Guy Bailey, and John Baugh. African American English. London and New York: Routledge, 1998.

  • Sledd, James. "Bi-Dialectalism: The Linguistics of White Supremacy." English Journal 58 (1969): 1307-15.

  • Smitherman-Donaldson, Geneva. Discourse and Discrimination. Wayne State University Press, 1988.

  • ---. Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977.

  • Stoller, Paul, ed. Black English: Its Background and Its Usage in the Schools and in Literature. New York: Dell, 1975.

  • Trudgil, Peter. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1974.

  • Wolfram, Walt. "The Relationship of White Southern Speech to Vernacular Black English." Language 50 (1974): 498-527.

  • Wolfram, W. and N. Clarke, eds. Black-White Speech Relationships. CAL
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