Grammar, Usage, and Language Standards

  • Achtert, Walter, and Joseph Gibaldi. MLA Style Manual. New York: Modern Language Association, 1985. (or later).

  • Angione, Howard, ed. Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual. New York: The Associated Press. (latest edition).

  • APA Style Manual.

  • Blake, N. F. A History of the English Language. New York: New York UP, 1996.

  • Bryson, Bill. Mother Tongue. New York: Avon Books, 1990.

  • Chicago Manual of Style. Chicago: Chicago UP, 1990. (or later edition).

  • Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English Usage. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1982.

  • Creswell, Thomas J. Usage in Dictionaries and Dictionaries of Usage. Publication of the American Dialect Society, nos. 63-64. University, AL: University of Alabama, 1975.

  • Crowly, Tony. Proper English? Readings in Language, History and Cultural Identity. London and New York: Routledge, 1991.

  • Crystal, David. Who Cares about Usage? New York: Penguin, 1984.

  • Curme, G. O. English Grammar. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1947.

  • Daniels, H. Famous Last Words: The American Language Crisis Reconsidered. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 1983.

  • Dykema, Karl. "How Fast is Standard Speech Changing?" American Speech 31 (1956): 89-95.

  • Evans, Bergen, and Cornelia Evans. A Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage. New York: Random House, 1957.

  • Finegan, Edward. Attitudes Toward English Usage: The History of a War of Words. New York: Teacher's College Press, Columbia University, 1980.

  • ---. "Style and Standardization in England: 1700-1900." English in Its Social Contexts: Essays in Historical Linguistics. Ed. Tim W. Machan and Charles T. Scott. New York and Oxford: Oxford UP, 1992. 102-30.

  • Fisher, John H. "Chancery English and the Emergence of Standard Written English in the Fifteenth Century." Speculum 52 (1977): 870-99.

  • ---. "Chancery Standard and Modern Written English." Journal of the Society of Archivists 6 (1979): 136-44.

  • ---. "European Chancelleries and the Rise of Standard Written Languages." Proceedings of the Illinois Medieval Association 3 Ed. Ruth E. Hamilton and David L. Wagner. DeKalb: Northern Illinois U, 1986. 1-34.

  • ---. "A Language Policy for Lancastrian England." PMLA 107 (1992): 1168-1180.

  • Fisher, John H., Malcolm Richardson and Jane L. Fisher. An Anthology of Chancery English. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1984.

  • Follett, Wilson. Modern American Usage: A Guide. Ed. Jacques Barzun. New York: Hll & Wang, 1966.

  • Foster, Brian. The Changing English Language. London: Macmillan, 1968.

  • Fowler, H. W. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. 2nd ed. Rev. by Sir Ernest Gowers. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 1965.

  • Fowler, H. W., and F. G. Fowler. The King's English. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1931.

  • Graddol, David, Dick Leith, and Joan Swan. English, History, Diversity and Change. New York and London: Routeledge, 1996.

  • Haugen, E. Language Conflict and Language Planning: The Case of Modern Norwegian.

  • Heath, Shirley Brice. "Standard English: Biography of a Symbol." Standards and Dialects in English. Ed. Timothy Shopen and Joseph Williams. Cambridge, MA: Winthrop, 1980. 3-32.

  • Jespersen, Otto. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. 7 vols. Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard, 1949.

  • Joos, Martin. The Five Clocks. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1967.

  • Kolln, Martha. "Closing the Books on Alchemy." College Communication and Composition 32 (May 1981): 139-51.

  • McArthur, Tom. The English Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.

  • Mittins, W. H., et al. Attitudes to English Usage. London: Oxford UP, 1970.

  • Milroy, James, and Lesley Milroy. Authority in Language: Investigating Language Prescription and Standardisation. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985.

  • Morris, William, and Mary Morris. Harper Dictionary of Contemporary Usage. 2nd ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1985.

  • New York Times Stylebook.

  • Nicholson, Margaret. A Dictionary of American-English Usage. New York: Oxford UP, 1957.

  • Partridge, Eric. Usage and Abusage: A Guide to Good English. New ed. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1981. (or later edition).

  • Quirk, Randolf. The Use of English. London: Longmans, 1969.

  • Quirk, Randolf, and Sidney Greenbaum. A Concise Grammar of Contemporary English. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1973.

  • Quirk, Randolf, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik. Contemporary English Grammar. New York: Seminar, 1972.

  • Shaklee, Margaret. "The Rise of Standard English." Standards and Dialects in English. Eds. Timothy Shopen and Joseph Williams. Cambridge, MA: Winthrop, 1980. 33-62.

  • Stotsky, Sandra. Losing Our Language. New York: Simon and Schuster/Free Press, 1999.

  • Strunk, William, and E. B. White. The Elements of Style. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan, 1979. (or later edition).

  • Williams, Raymond. The Long Revolution. London: Chatto and Windus, 1961.

  • Wilson, Kenneth. Van Winkle's Return: Change in American English, 1966-1986. Hanover and Lodon: University of New England Press, 1987.

  • Wood, Frederick. Current English Usage. Rev. by R. H. and L. M. Flavell. London: Macmillan, 1981.
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