and Translation Guide

Adapted from Moore, Knott, and Hulbert's The Elements of Old English by K. Jambeck.

N.B. Words containing ð [eth] are listed under þ [thorn], which follows t in this glossary.
Both ð and þ represent the dental fricative spelled "th" in modern English.



æcer: (noun - masculine) field; acre
së æcer - the field/acre (masculine nominative singular)

æcerum: [æcer - field; acre]
of þäm æcerum - from the fields (masculine dative plural)

æðeling: (noun - masculine) prince
së æðeling - the prince (masculine nominative singular)

æðelingas: [æðeling - prince]
þä æðelingas fëngon tö þäm gärum - the princes took up the spears (masculine nominative plural)

æðelinges: [æðeling - prince]
þæs æðelinges häme - the prince's home; the home of the prince (masculine genitive singular)

älådan: (Weak 1) to lead; to bring; to lead away

älåddon: [älådan - to lead; bring; lead away] (preterit indicative plural)
hïe älåddon - they brought; they led; they led away (preterit indicative 3rd person plural)



beald: (adjective) bold

batum: (noun - masculine) boats
on batum - in boats (masculine dative plural)

bealdan: [beald - bold] ( adjective - masculine nominative and accusative plural)
bealdan mëças - bold swords

bïtan: (Strong 1 - bïtan, bät, biton, biten) to bite

biton: [bïtan - to bite] (preterit indicative plural)
wë biton - we bit (1st person plural)
îë biton - you bit (2nd person plural)
hïe biton - they bit (3rd person plural)

bringan: (Weak 1- bringan, bröhte, bröht) to bring

bröhton: [bringan - to bring]
hïe bröhton - they brought (preterit indicative 3rd person plural)



camp: (noun - masculine) battle
së camp - the battle (masculine nominative singular)

campe: [camp - battle]
on þåm campe - in the battle (masculine dative singular)

cræft: (noun - masculine) skill; power, strength; accomplishment; trade, handicraft;
trick, deceit
së cræft - the strength (masculine nominative singular)

cuman: (Strong 4 - cuman, cöm, cömon, cumen) to come, to go

cyning: (noun - masculine) king
së cyning - the king (masculine nominative singular)

cyninge: (noun - feminine) queen
sëo cyninge - the queen (feminine nominative singular)



N.B. Words containing ð [eth] are listed under þ [thorn], which follows t in this glossary.
Both ð and þ represent the dental fricative spelled "th" in modern English.

dëad: (adjective - masculine nominative singular) dead

Dene: (noun - masculine plural) Danes
þä Dene (masculine nominative or accusative plural)

Dena: [Dene - Danes]
þära Dena - of the Danes (masculine genitive plural)

dëað: (noun - masculine) death
së dëað - (the) death (masculine nominative singular)

dryhten: (noun - masculine) lord (secular); Lord (Judeo-Christian)
[N.B. The term for the Christian deity is not always capitalized in Old English.]



N.B. Words containing ð [eth] are listed under þ [thorn], which follows t in this glossary.
Both ð and þ represent the dental fricative spelled "th" in modern English.

ðam ðe or þäm þe: (the demonstrative þäm [ - the, this], sometimes followed by þe,
used as relative pronoun) whom, which
mid ðam ðe - with which (instrumental singular)

ðæs / þæs : (article or demonstrative adjective [See ])
ðæs æðelinges - the prince's, or, that prince's (genitive plural)



ëac: (adverb) also

eorl: (noun - masculine) earl, chief, nobleman, warrior
së eorl - the warrior; the nobleman (masculine nominative singular)

eorlas: [eorl - earl]
þä eorlas hæfdon ofercumen - the earls had overcome (masculine nominative plural)



fela: (noun - indeclinable neuter followed by genitive) many, much

fëngon (): [fön: to seize; to take (up); to catch]
hïe fëngon tö þäm gärum - they took up the spears (preterit indicative 3rd person plural)

fëond: (noun - masculine) enemy
së fëond - the enemy (masculine nominative singular)

fisc: (noun - masculine) fish

fiscas: noun masculine nominative or accusative plural)
þe fiscas îefëngon - who caught fish (masculine accusative plural)

fisceras: (noun - masculine nominative or accusative plural) fishermen
þa fisceras - the fishermen (masculine nominative plural)

folc: (noun - neuter) people, tribe, folk, nation

fön: (Strong 7 - fön, fëng, fëngon, fangen) to seize; to take; to catch

forwundodon: [forwundian - to wound seriously]
forwundodon - they wounded seriously (preterit indicative 3rd person plural)
(also for use with we and you plural)

fuglas: [fugol - bird]
þä fuglas - the birds (masculine nominative or accusative plural)

fugol: (noun - masculine) bird
së fugol - the bird (masculine nominative singular)



gaderian, gæderian: (Weak 2): to gather

gär: (noun - masculine) spear
së gär - the spear (masculine nominative singular)

gäras: [gär - spear ]
þäs gäras - the spears (masculine nominative plural, or masculine accusative plural)

gärum: [gär - spear]
tö þäm gärum - the spears (masculine dative plural)

îefëng: [îefön - to take; seize; catch; capture]
hë îefëng - he captured (preterit indicative 3rd person singular)

îefëngon: [îefön - to take; seize; catch; capture]
hïe îefëngon - they caught; they captured (preterit indicative 3rd person plural)

îefön: [Strong 7- îefön, îefëng, îefëngon, îefangen] to take; seize; catch; capture

îegaderod: [gaderian, gaderian - to gather] gathered (past participle)

îeong: (adjective) young

god: (noun - masculine)
së god - the god [non-Christian] (masculine nominative singular)

God: (noun - masculine)
God - God (masculine nominative singular)
[N.B. The term for the Judeo-Christian deity is not always capitalized in Old English.]

göd: (adjective) good
së göd cyning - the good king (nominative masculine singular)
göd cyninge - good queen
sëo göde hlåfdiîe - the good lady

göd: (noun - neuter) good; benefit; property; possessions, goods
ðæt göd - the good [or] the possessions (neuter nominative singular)



habban: (Weak 3 - habban, hæfde, hæfd) to have

hæfdon: [habban - to have] (preterit indicative)
wë hæfdon we had (1st person plural)
îë hæfdon - you had (2nd person plural)
hïe hæfdon - they had (3rd person plural)

hæfde: [habban - to have]
he had; she had; it had (preterit indicative 3rd person singular)

hærfest: (noun - masculine) autumn

hærfeste: [hærfest - autumn] (masculine dative or instrumental singular)
on hærfeste - in autumn (masculine dative singular)

hafoc: (noun - masculine) hawk
së hafoc - the hawk (masculine nominative singular)

häm: (noun - masculine) home
së häm - the home (masculine nominative singular)

häme: [häm - home] (masculine dative or instrumental singular)
tö his häme - to his home (masculine dative singular)

: (pronoun - masculine nominative 3rd person singular) he

helm: (noun - masculine) helmet; protection
së helm - the helmet (masculine nominative singular)

helmas: [helm - helmet; protection]
þä helmas - the helmets (nominative or accusative plural)

helmum: [helm - helmet; protection]
þäm helmum - [to] the helmets (masculine dative plural)

hïe: (pronoun - masculine nominative 3rd person plural) they

hläf: (noun - masculine) loaf
së hläf - the loaf (masculine nominative singular)

hläford: (noun - masculine) lord
së hläford - the lord (masculine nominative singular)

hlåfdiîe: (noun - feminine) lady
sëo hlåfdiîe - the lady (feminine nominative singular)



ierðling: (noun - masculine) farmer; plowman
së ierðling - the farmer (masculine nominative singular)

ierðlingas: [ierðling - farmer; plowman]
þä ierðlingas - the farmers (masculine nominative plural or masculine accusative plural)



mann: (noun - masculine) man
së mann - the man (masculine nominative singular)

mëças: [së mëçe - the sword]
ðäs mëças - the swords (masculine nominative or accusative plural)

mëçe: (noun - masculine) sword
së mëçe - the sword (masculine nominative singular)

miçel: (adjective - masculine nominative singular) much, great, large

miçel: (noun - neuter) much; many; a great deal
së cræft þära wera wæs miçel - the skill of the men was much (masculine nominative singular [subject complement])

mid: (preposition) with



of: (preposition) from; away from; after; out of; concerning

ofercömon: [ofercuman - to overcome - See cuman] (preterit indicative plural)
hïe ofercömon - they overcame (preterit indicative 3rd person plural)

on: (preposition; sometimes adverb) on; in; into; among; during; against



(masc.), sëo (fem.), þæt (neuter): (definite article or demonstrative adjective)
the [or] that
[These forms can also serve as relative pronouns or demonstrative pronouns. See below.]
së stän - the stone (definite article, masculine nominative singular)
së stän - that stone (demonstrative adjective, masculine nominative)

(masc.), sëo (fem.), þæt (neuter): (relative pronoun or demonstrative pronoun)
who, which; that; that one
Iç seah ðone mann së is göd cyning.
- I saw the man who is a good king.
- I saw the man; that one is a good king.

seah: [sëon - to see]
iç seah - I saw (preterit indicative, 1st person singular)

sëo: (feminine definite article; demonstrative adjective; relative pronoun;
or demonstrative pronoun)
sëo hlåfdiîe - the lady (frminine definite article)

sëon: [Strong 5 - sëon, seah, säwon, sewen] to see

slëan: [Strong 6 - slëan, slöh, slögon, slagen] to slay

slöh: [slëan - to slay]
hë slöh - he slew, slayed (preterit indicative 3rd person singular)

sum: (adjective - masculine nominative singular) some; a certain
sum mann - a certain man

sum: (pronoun) someone; a certain one; some (of them)

swä, swå: (adverb, conjunction) so as, as if
swä hwä swä - whoever, whatever;
swä hwaet swä - whoever, whatever;
swä hwelç - whatsoever;
swä (oft) swä - as (often) as;
swä same - in the same manner;
swä swä - just as, even as;
swä ... swä - as ... so; either ... or;
swä þëah - nevertheless



þä or ðä: [ - the; that; who, which] (definite article; demonstrative adjective;
relative pronoun )
þä eorlas hæfdon - the earls had (masculine nominative plural)
hë seah þä eorlas - he saw the earls (masculine accusative plural)

þä: (adverb) then

þä: (conjunction) when; since, because
þä..., þä... - when..., then...

þä þe or ðä ðe: (the demonstrative þä [ - the, that], sometimes used
with þe, used as relative pronoun) who, whom, which (nominative or accusative plural)

þäm þe or ðäm ðe: (the demonstrative þäm [ - the, that] sometimes followed by þe,
used as relative pronoun) whom, which
þäm þe hïe ofercömon - whom they overcame

þäm / ðäm or þåm / ðåm: (definite article or demonstrative - masculine or neuter singular)
the, that
þäm stäne - the stone (definite article, dative singular)
þåm campe - (definite article, dative singular)

þära / ðära: (definite article or demonstrative) the, that
þära stäna - of the stones (article - masculine genitive plural)

þår / ðår: (adverb) there; in that place

þår / ðår: (conjunction) where; if only

þæs / ðæs : (article or demonstrative adjective [See ])
ðæs æðelinges - the prince's, or, that prince's (genitive plural)

þæt: (article - neuter nominative singular [See ])
þæt folc - that tribe (neuter nominative singular)

þë: (relative pronoun) who, whom, which, that (variant of )
þä ierðlingas þe wæstmas älåddon - the farmers who carried crops (nominative and accusative)

þë: (conjunction) because

þë: [þu thou: 2nd person personal pronoun - nominative singular]
þë - thee (2nd person pronoun - accusative singular)

þeîn: (noun - masculine) servant; retainer; thane; warrior

þone or ðone: [ - the, that]
þone stän - the stone (article - masculine accusative singular)



wåron: [wesan - to be; to exist]
wë wåron - we were (preterit indicative, 1st person plural)
hïe wåron - they were (preterit indicative, 3rd person plural)

wæs: [wesan - to be, to exist]
hë wæs - he was (preterit, 3rd person singular)

wæstmas: (noun - masculine nominative or accusative plural) crops - (masculine nominative plural) [no article here]

wer: (noun - masculine) man; husband
së wer - the man (masculine nominative singular)

wera: (noun - masculine) of men - genitive plural

weras: (noun - masculine plural) men
þä weras bröhton - the men brought (masculine nominative plural)

wesan: [Strong 5 - wesan, wæs, wåron] to be, to exist

wifmann: (noun - masculine singular) woman
së wifmann - the wife (masculine nominative singular)

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