Old English Text File and Linked Glossary Demonstration

The Old English words in the following sentence are linked to a glossary. When you "click" on an underlined work, the glossary entry appears in the frame at the bottom of the page. It remains there until you "click" on another word.

Þä eorlas hæfdon þä mëças and þä helmas þära Dena, þä þe hïe on þåm campe ofercömon.

(Samuel Moore, Thomas A. Knott, and James R. Hulbert. The Elements of Old English. 10th Edition.
[Ann Arbor, Michigan: The George Wahr Publishing Co., 1977], page 21).


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Back to the WCSU Home Page This page was last revised on October 28, 1997.


æcer: (noun - masculine) field; acre
së æcer - the field/acre (masculine nominative singular)

æcerum: [æcer - field; acre]
of þäm æcerum - from the fields (masculine dative plural)

æðeling: (noun - masculine) prince
së æðeling - the prince (masculine nominative singular)

æðelingas: [æðeling - prince]
þä æðelingas fëngon tö þäm gärum - the princes took up the spears (masculine nominative plural)

æðelinges: [æðeling - prince]
þæs æðelinges häme - the prince's home; the home of the prince (masculine genitive singular)

älådan: (Weak 1) to lead; to bring; to lead away

älåddon: [älådan - to lead; bring; lead away] (preterit indicative plural)
hïe älåddon - they brought; they led; they led away (preterit indicative 3rd person plural)

beald: (adjective) bold

batum: (noun - masculine) boats
on batum - in boats (masculine dative plural)

bealdan: [beald - bold] ( adjective - masculine nominative and accusative plural)
bealdan mëças - bold swords

bïtan: (Strong 1 - bïtan, bät, biton, biten) to bite

biton: [bïtan - to bite] (preterit indicative plural)
wë biton - we bit (1st person plural)
îë biton - you bit (2nd person plural)
hïe biton - they bit (3rd person plural)

bringan: (Weak 1- bringan, bröhte, bröht) to bring

bröhton: [bringan - to bring]
hïe bröhton - they brought (preterit indicative 3rd person plural)

camp: (noun - masculine) battle
së camp - the battle (masculine nominative singular)

campe: [camp - battle]
on þåm campe - in the battle (masculine dative singular)

cræft: (noun - masculine) skill; power, strength; accomplishment; trade, handicraft;
trick, deceit
së cræft - the strength (masculine nominative singular)

cuman: (Strong 4 - cuman, cöm, cömon, cumen) to come, to go

cyning: (noun - masculine) king
së cyning - the king (masculine nominative singular)

cyninge: (noun - feminine) queen
sëo cyninge - the queen (feminine nominative singular)

dëad: (adjective - masculine nominative singular) dead

Dene: (noun - masculine plural) Danes
þä Dene (masculine nominative or accusative plural)

Dena: [Dene - Danes]
þära Dena - of the Danes (masculine genitive plural)

dëað: (noun - masculine) death
së dëað - (the) death (masculine nominative singular)

dryhten: (noun - masculine) lord (secular); Lord (Judeo-Christian)
[N.B. The term for the Christian deity is not always capitalized in Old English.]

ðam ðe or þäm þe: (the demonstrative þäm [ - the, this], sometimes followed by þe,
used as relative pronoun) whom, which
mid ðam ðe - with which (instrumental singular)

ðæs / þæs : (article or demonstrative adjective [See ])
ðæs æðelinges - the prince's, or, that prince's (genitive plural)

ëac: (adverb) also

eorl: (noun - masculine) earl, chief, nobleman, warrior
së eorl - the warrior; the nobleman (masculine nominative singular)

eorlas: [eorl - earl]
þä eorlas hæfdon ofercumen - the earls had overcome (masculine nominative plural)

fela: (noun - indeclinable neuter followed by genitive) many, much

fëngon (): [fön: to seize; to take (up); to catch]
hïe fëngon tö þäm gärum - they took up the spears (preterit indicative 3rd person plural)

fëond: (noun - masculine) enemy
së fëond - the enemy (masculine nominative singular)

fisc: (noun - masculine) fish

fiscas: noun masculine nominative or accusative plural)
þe fiscas îefëngon - who caught fish (masculine accusative plural)

fisceras: (noun - masculine nominative or accusative plural) fishermen
þa fisceras - the fishermen (masculine nominative plural)

folc: (noun - neuter) people, tribe, folk, nation

fön: (Strong 7 - fön, fëng, fëngon, fangen) to seize; to take; to catch

forwundodon: [forwundian - to wound seriously]
forwundodon - they wounded seriously (preterit indicative 3rd person plural)
(also for use with we and you plural)

fuglas: [fugol - bird]
þä fuglas - the birds (masculine nominative or accusative plural)

fugol: (noun - masculine) bird
së fugol - the bird (masculine nominative singular)

gaderian, gæderian: (Weak 2): to gather

gär: (noun - masculine) spear
së gär - the spear (masculine nominative singular)

gäras: [gär - spear ]
þäs gäras - the spears (masculine nominative plural, or masculine accusative plural)

gärum: [gär - spear]
tö þäm gärum - the spears (masculine dative plural)

îefëng: [îefön - to take; seize; catch; capture]
hë îefëng - he captured (preterit indicative 3rd person singular)

îefëngon: [îefön - to take; seize; catch; capture]
hïe îefëngon - they caught; they captured (preterit indicative 3rd person plural)

îefön: [Strong 7- îefön, îefëng, îefëngon, îefangen] to take; seize; catch; capture

îegaderod: [gaderian, gaderian - to gather] gathered (past participle)

îeong: (adjective) young

god: (noun - masculine)
së god - the god [non-Christian] (masculine nominative singular)

God: (noun - masculine)
God - God (masculine nominative singular)
[N.B. The term for the Judeo-Christian deity is not always capitalized in Old English.]

göd: (adjective) good
së göd cyning - the good king (nominative masculine singular)
göd cyninge - good queen
sëo göde hlåfdiîe - the good lady

göd: (noun - neuter) good; benefit; property; possessions, goods
ðæt göd - the good [or] the possessions (neuter nominative singular)

habban: (Weak 3 - habban, hæfde, hæfd) to have

hæfdon: [habban - to have] (preterit indicative)
wë hæfdon we had (1st person plural)
îë hæfdon - you had (2nd person plural)
hïe hæfdon - they had (3rd person plural)

hæfde: [habban - to have]
he had; she had; it had (preterit indicative 3rd person singular)

hærfest: (noun - masculine) autumn

hærfeste: [hærfest - autumn] (masculine dative or instrumental singular)
on hærfeste - in autumn (masculine dative singular)

hafoc: (noun - masculine) hawk
së hafoc - the hawk (masculine nominative singular)

häm: (noun - masculine) home
së häm - the home (masculine nominative singular)

häme: [häm - home] (masculine dative or instrumental singular)
tö his häme - to his home (masculine dative singular)

: (pronoun - masculine nominative 3rd person singular) he

helm: (noun - masculine) helmet; protection
së helm - the helmet (masculine nominative singular)

helmas: [helm - helmet; protection]
þä helmas - the helmets (nominative or accusative plural)

helmum: [helm - helmet; protection]
þäm helmum - [to] the helmets (masculine dative plural)

hïe: (pronoun - masculine nominative 3rd person plural) they

hläf: (noun - masculine) loaf
së hläf - the loaf (masculine nominative singular)

hläford: (noun - masculine) lord
së hläford - the lord (masculine nominative singular)

hlåfdiîe: (noun - feminine) lady
sëo hlåfdiîe - the lady (feminine nominative singular)

ierðling: (noun - masculine) farmer; plowman
së ierðling - the farmer (masculine nominative singular)

ierðlingas: [ierðling - farmer; plowman]
þä ierðlingas - the farmers (masculine nominative plural or masculine accusative plural)

mann: (noun - masculine) man
së mann - the man (masculine nominative singular)

mëças: [së mëçe - the sword]
ðäs mëças - the swords (masculine nominative or accusative plural)

mëçe: (noun - masculine) sword
së mëçe - the sword (masculine nominative singular)

miçel: (adjective - masculine nominative singular) much, great, large

miçel: (noun - neuter) much; many; a great deal
së cræft þära wera wæs miçel - the skill of the men was much (masculine nominative singular [subject complement])

mid: (preposition) with

of: (preposition) from; away from; after; out of; concerning

ofercömon: [ofercuman - to overcome - See cuman] (preterit indicative plural)
hïe ofercömon - they overcame (preterit indicative 3rd person plural)

on: (preposition; sometimes adverb) on; in; into; among; during; against

(masc.), sëo (fem.), þæt (neuter): (definite article or demonstrative adjective)
the [or] that
[These forms can also serve as relative pronouns or demonstrative pronouns. See below.]
së stän - the stone (definite article, masculine nominative singular)
së stän - that stone (demonstrative adjective, masculine nominative)

(masc.), sëo (fem.), þæt (neuter): (relative pronoun or demonstrative pronoun)
who, which; that; that one
Iç seah ðone mann së is göd cyning.
- I saw the man who is a good king.
- I saw the man; that one is a good king.

seah: [sëon - to see]
iç seah - I saw (preterit indicative, 1st person singular)

sëo: (feminine definite article; demonstrative adjective; relative pronoun;
or demonstrative pronoun)
sëo hlåfdiîe - the lady (frminine definite article)

sëon: [Strong 5 - sëon, seah, säwon, sewen] to see

slëan: [Strong 6 - slëan, slöh, slögon, slagen] to slay

slöh: [slëan - to slay]
hë slöh - he slew, slayed (preterit indicative 3rd person singular)

sum: (adjective - masculine nominative singular) some; a certain
sum mann - a certain man

sum: (pronoun) someone; a certain one; some (of them)

swä, swå: (adverb, conjunction) so as, as if
swä hwä swä - whoever, whatever;
swä hwaet swä - whoever, whatever;
swä hwelç - whatsoever;
swä (oft) swä - as (often) as;
swä same - in the same manner;
swä swä - just as, even as;
swä ... swä - as ... so; either ... or;
swä þëah - nevertheless

þä or ðä: [ - the; that; who, which] (definite article; demonstrative adjective;
relative pronoun )
þä eorlas hæfdon - the earls had (masculine nominative plural)
hë seah þä eorlas - he saw the earls (masculine accusative plural)

þä: (adverb) then

þä: (conjunction) when; since, because
þä..., þä... - when..., then...

þä þe or ðä ðe: (the demonstrative þä [ - the, that], sometimes used
with þe, used as relative pronoun) who, whom, which (nominative or accusative plural)

þäm þe or ðäm ðe: (the demonstrative þäm [ - the, that] sometimes followed by þe,
used as relative pronoun) whom, which
þäm þe hïe ofercömon - whom they overcame

þäm / ðäm or þåm / ðåm: (definite article or demonstrative - masculine or neuter singular)
the, that
þäm stäne - the stone (definite article, dative singular)
þåm campe - (definite article, dative singular)

þära / ðära: (definite article or demonstrative) the, that
þära stäna - of the stones (article - masculine genitive plural)

þår / ðår: (adverb) there; in that place

þår / ðår: (conjunction) where; if only

þæs / ðæs : (article or demonstrative adjective [See ])
ðæs æðelinges - the prince's, or, that prince's (genitive plural)

þæt: (article - neuter nominative singular [See ])
þæt folc - that tribe (neuter nominative singular)

þë: (relative pronoun) who, whom, which, that (variant of )
þä ierðlingas þe wæstmas älåddon - the farmers who carried crops (nominative and accusative)

þë: (conjunction) because

þë: [þu thou: 2nd person personal pronoun - nominative singular]
þë - thee (2nd person pronoun - accusative singular)

þeîn: (noun - masculine) servant; retainer; thane; warrior

þone or ðone: [ - the, that]
þone stän - the stone (article - masculine accusative singular)

wåron: [wesan - to be; to exist]
wë wåron - we were (preterit indicative, 1st person plural)
hïe wåron - they were (preterit indicative, 3rd person plural)

wæs: [wesan - to be, to exist]
hë wæs - he was (preterit, 3rd person singular)

wæstmas: (noun - masculine nominative or accusative plural) crops - (masculine nominative plural) [no article here]

wer: (noun - masculine) man; husband
së wer - the man (masculine nominative singular)

wera: (noun - masculine) of men - genitive plural

weras: (noun - masculine plural) men
þä weras bröhton - the men brought (masculine nominative plural)

wesan: [Strong 5 - wesan, wæs, wåron] to be, to exist

wifmann: (noun - masculine singular) woman
së wifmann - the wife (masculine nominative singular)