Assignments 1-3 Answer all questions as best you can after reading each section.
Assignment 1: A chapter from Daniels, H. Famous Last Words: (read online) http://www.stanford.edu/class/linguist1/Rdgs/Daniels.pdf
1. Now, list three rules of English (language, not usage).
2. Define “phonology.”
3. How many registers do you find yourself using over time? Can you give them names?
4. Is it wrong to say “they” instead of “him or her?” When?
5. Why should we (professors) insist that you speak and write “standard English?”
Assignment 2: Engel Intro, Chapter 1.
6. On page 2, Engel uses the word “metamessages.” From the context, what do you think this means?
7. Also on page 2, he say’s “Animals are no doubt aware, but only humans are conscious.” What do you think he means by this?
8. On page 6, Engel says that it’s useful for us to be able to “distinguish between the descriptive and evaluative dimensions of our words.” How would you define “descriptive” and “evaluative” in this context.
9. In Chapter 1, Engel explains the idea of finding truth through the use of the syllogism. What is a syllogism?
10. Engel says “language is the vehicle that makes thought possible.” Why does he say his (refer to the statements in the book that he uses to support this). Would you agree with him or not?
Assignment 3: Hayakawa Chapter 1: Language & Survival If you don't have the book yet, here's the chapter: Word or HTML
11. Here are some commonly held beliefs: What is Hayakawa’s view on these beliefs?
A. Many species of animals accumulate knowledge from one generation to the next.
B. Words are not really important; what is important are the ideas for which they stand.
12. Of these two statements, which do you think is the more correct view?
A. Humans are naturally competitive.
B. Humans are naturally cooperative.
Select one piece of evidence to support the view you select. (By “evidence,” I mean some observable behavior or artifact).
13. Where does your “Niagara of words” come from. Try to estimate the number of words you are exposed to in a typical day (from other people, radio, TV, reading, etc. For example, there are about 135 words on this page).