Research Guide: Introduction to Philosophy

| Citing Sources | Reference Books | CONSULS Catalog | Databases & Indexes | Locating Periodicals | Interlibrary Loan | Questions? |

Citing Sources to Avoid Plagiarism

Plagiarism is a form of cheating which may lower the grade you receive on your assignment. You must cite the source of any direct quotation and any facts or ideas you obtained from a source other than yourself. For more information about how to avoid plagiarism, please see this brief video from Bainbridge College in YouTube: Plagiarism: How to Avoid It (

For tips on citation format, please see the MLA Formatting and Style Guide courtesy of the OWL: Purdue Online Writing Lab (

Reference Books for Background Information

Reference books are shelved by Library of Congress call number in the reference stacks on the first floor of the Ruth Haas Library. To learn about LC call numbers, please watch the brief video Reading a Call Number in YouTube (courtesy of the Douglas College Library). Reference books may not be checked out, but photocopiers are available for student use on the first and third floors of the Haas Library.

General Reference: Socrates

Ancient Writers (see essays on "Plato" and "Xenophon" in volume 1)RESERVE: PA 3002.A5 1982
A Companion to Plato (see essay on Socrates)RESERVE: B 395.C64 2006
A Companion to Socrates (Blackwell Companions to Philosophy)RESERVE: B 317.C58 2006
Credo Reference (search the term "socrates")Online under Databases & Indexes
Dictionary of Literary Biography (see entries for Plato and Xenophon)Online under Databases & Indexes
Encyclopedia of Ethics (see essay on "Socrates" in volume II)RESERVE: BJ 63.E45 1992
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Second edition (see essay on "Socrates" in volume 9)RESERVE: Ref B 51.E53 2006
The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (see essay on "Socrates" on pp. 674-676DE 5.O94 1998
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome (see essay on "Socrates" in volume 6)RESERVE: DE 5.O95 2010
Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (see essay on "Socrates in volume 9)RESERVE: Ref B 51.R68 1998

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CONSULS Online Catalog for Books and Media

CONSULS catalog workstations are located in the Reference Area on the first floor, and on each of the other floors of the Haas Library. You may logon to CONSULS via the WCSU Libraries Homepage at or directly at For more detailed instructions on searching, please see the yellow CONSULS flyer on the display rack on the first floor.

Please Note: CONSULS ignores upper and lower case, and you may omit punctuation, except the hyphen which must be replaced by a space.


Select Author at the CONSULS Main Menu, then type the writer's name last-name-first. Correct spelling is important.

Example: warne christopher (press ENTER)
Or just: warne chris (ENTER)

Example: plato (ENTER)
Example: xenophon (ENTER)

To limit search results to items owned by WCSU, click on Limit/Sort and then select WCSU under "Where Item Is Located."


Select Subject at the CONSULS Main Menu, then type the writer's name last-name-first. Correct spelling is important. To limit results to items owned by WCSU, click Limit/Sort and then select WCSU under "Where Item Is Located."

Example: socrates (press ENTER)

CONSULS will retrieve a list of Library of Congress subject headings that begin with the words you typed:

Socrates (main heading is subdivided)
Socrates--Death and burial
socrates--Political and social views
Socrates--Trials, litigation, etc.


Select Title at the CONSULS Main Menu, then type as much of the title as you remember in correct word order. In CONSULS, you may omit "a," "an," or "the" at the beginning of a title.

Example: Socrates, Buddha, Confucius, Jesus: the Paradigmatic Individuals (press ENTER)
Or just: socrates buddha confuc (ENTER)


Select Subject at the CONSULS Main Menu, then type the Library of Congress subject heading that best describes your topic. Correct spelling and word order are important. The complete list of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is published in a set of big red books available in the Reference Area on the first floor.

Example: Socrates--Trials, litigration, etc. (press ENTER)
Or just: socrates trials (ENTER)


Select Keyword(s) at the CONSULS Main Menu, then type words that best describe your topic, in any order.

Example: socrates and (life or biograph*) press ENTER
Narrower: socrates and (youth or military service) ENTER
Broader: socrates and (athens or athenian or polis) ENTER

Example: socrates and (philosoph* or teaching* or pedagog*) ENTER
Narrower: socrates and (ethic* or moral*) ENTER

Use the * (asterisk) as a truncation symbol to retrieve variant forms of a word root. Use the Boolean OR to expand your search by including synonyms and related terms. When using two different Boolean commands in the same search statement ("and" and "or" in the preceding examples) you must include parentheses to indicate which command is to be performed first.


If the item you need is owned by one of the other CSU Libraries (CCSU, SCSU, or ECSU) but not by WCSU, or if the WCSU copy is checked out, you may order the item via Inter-Campus Loan. Select the Request option at the full record display in CONSULS, then select "WCSU" and type your campus network username and password. Be sure to specify a pickup location (Haas or Young Library) before initiating your request.

There is a limit of ten (10) Inter-Campus Loan requests per person. Videos are available via Inter-Campus Loan. Please allow 3-4 working days for delivery to the Haas Circulation Desk. Items borrowed via Inter-Campus Loan may be renewed if no one else has placed a HOLD on the item.

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Online Databases for Finding Articles, Images, and Media

Credo Reference
Coverage: A database of dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference works in full-text. Includes media (images, audiofiles, video).
Location: Under Articles & Databases by Subject: Reference on the WCSU Libraries Homepage.
Scope: Reference articles, quotations, images, audio files, and videos on a wide range of topics..
Academic Search Premier in EBSCOhost
Coverage: 1990 - present (earlier for many publications)
Location: Under Articles & Databases: Most Popular at the WCSU Libraries Homepage.
Scope: Indexes over 8,000 newspapers, magazines, and scholarly journals in most fields (including art), with 4,500+ available in full-text.
Coverage: Issue number one to within 3-5 years of present
Location: Under Articles & Databases: Most Popular on the WCSU Libraries Homepage.
Scope: Complete full-text backfiles of over 500 core scholarly journals in more than 50 disciplines, including philosophy and humanistic studies.
Films on Demand
Coverage: High-quality streaming video and multimedia content for academic, vocational, and life-skills users.
Location: Select Films on Demand under Articles & Databases: A-Z at the WCSU Libraries Homepage.
Scope: Educational videos released by the Film Media Group under the brand names Films for the Humanities and Sciences, Cambridge Educational, Meridian Education, and Shopware.

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Locating Periodicals in the Haas Library

The Haas Library subscribes to print magazines and journals in philosophy and humanistic studies. Additional periodicals are available online in full-text in the library's subscription databases. To find out if WCSU subscribes to a specific periodical in print or online:

1. Select Journal Title at the CONSULS main menu, then type the name of the periodical (example: southern journal of philosophy) and press ENTER. If a title list appears on the screen, select the desired title, then look inside the box to find WCSU holdings. Be sure to scroll to the bottom of the screen to see if WCSU owns backfiles on microfilm or microfiche.

2. To find out if a specific periodical is available in full-text in one of the library's online databases, use the Journal Finder available under Articles & Databases on the WCSU Libraries Homepage (

How to Use Interlibrary Loan

If the CSU Libraries do not own the book or periodical you need, you may request delivery of the item from another library via Interlibrary Loan using the online ILLiad system available at:

There is a limit of 5 Interlibrary Loan requests per person per day. Media items are not available via Interlibrary Loan. Under most circumstances, Interlibrary Loan is a free service, but please allow at least ten working days for delivery. You will be notified as soon as the material arrives. Faster document delivery service is available for a reasonable fee. Please see the librarian at the Reference Desk or call the Interlibrary Loan Desk at (203) 837-9114 for more information.

Do You Have a Question?

The Reference Desk on the first floor of the Haas Library is staffed by a professional librarian, trained to assist in your research, or you may contact Joan Reitz, Instruction Librarian, at 837-8308 or My office is located in Room 402 on the fourth floor of the Haas Library, near the glass elevator. Please drop in if you need assistance!

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Please send your comments to Joan Reitz, Haas Instruction Librarian, Western Connecticut State University.
Last updated on February 10, 2016.